Seminar in Early Judaism
Dr. John C. Reeves
Office hours: TR 5:00-6:00; or by appointment
‘The production and circulation of spurious texts is a cultural strategy used in the interests of various political agendas ….’ K. K. Ruthven, Faking Literature, p. 184.
‘Current and seminal issues related to the historical-critical study of early Judaism and its literature.’ The topic this semester will be Jewish apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, that vast penumbra of allegedly ‘expunged’ or ‘falsely ascribed’ literary texts darkening the margins around the ‘official’ scriptural canon. The works we will study are customarily labeled ‘Jewish’ and dated within the Second Temple or Roman eras of Jewish history. We will subject these assumptions to a rigorous scrutiny. Some critical categories and taxonomies demanding consideration include those of the authentic, the genuine, and the original versus the spurious, the fake, and the counterfeit; ancient versus modern notions of authorship; cultural parameters surrounding the social construction of authority; and textual signatures (if any) of religious identity. Much time will be devoted to the close reading in English of a broadly representative sampling of this literature (e.g., 1 Enoch, Jubilees, Life of Adam and Eve, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, etc.) wherein issues pertinent to reconstructions of Jewish (Christian, etc.) literary and religious history can be identified and evaluated.
H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984).
Some secondary essays and articles (to be distributed or assigned by the instructor)
a. Research project. One (1) formal research project to be presented in oral and written form (at least 20 double-spaced pages, exclusive of notes and list of sources) that focuses upon a particular topic relevant to the study of Jewish apocrypha and pseudepigrapha. In consultation with the instructor, the student should select a topic of individual interest that permits such an extended exposition, analysis and/or evaluation. The project will be expounded orally at the final class meeting (December 1); the written papers are due by 12:00 PM one week later (December 8). The research project accounts for 50% of the course grade.
b. Seminar papers. Excepting the first and final meetings of the class, students will prepare and expound written seminar papers based upon, but not necessarily limited to, the readings assigned for that class meeting from the primary and/or secondary resources found in Sparks and the appended course bibliography. After public discussion, these papers will be turned in to the instructor on their due dates.
c. Individual involvement. Almost perfect attendance (see below) is an essential requirement for this course. Each class meeting builds upon the knowledge gained during previous meetings. Moreover, in-class discussion, close reading, and analysis by both the instructor and class members comprise the bulk of every class meeting. Preparation for every class usually involves the completion of a series of assigned readings and/or written assignment(s), and individual students are often asked to initiate our collective examination and discussion of the weekly topics. Students are expected to contribute in an informed manner to the public analysis and discussion of any assigned topic. The instructor’s collective assessment of one’s attendance, general class preparation, weekly seminar papers, and oral contributions will constitute 50% of the final course grade.
d. Zakhor (Remember!): Mastery of the assigned readings, completion of written assignments, and diligent class attendance are necessary prerequisites for the successful completion of this course. Each student is responsible for all lectures, class discussions, hand-outs, assignments, and announcements, whether or not he/she is present when they occur.
a. The grading scale used in this course is as follows:
|91-95+||A||demonstrable mastery of material–outstanding
|81-90||B||satisfactory performance of assignments|
|71-80||C||inadequate and/or faulty understanding of
|0-70||U||unacceptable graduate-level work|
b. One of the requirements of this course is to complete the work of the course on time. Sometimes there are legitimate reasons for late work—an illness or other emergency. ‘Emergency,’ however, does not include your social involvements, travel plans, job schedule, disk and/or printer failures, the state of your love life, your obligations to other courses, or general malaise over the state of the world. The world has been in a mess as long as anyone can remember, and most of the world’s work is done by people whose lives are a mass of futility and discontent. If you haven’t learned yet, you had better learn now to work under the conditions of the world as it is. Therefore:
1) All missing work is averaged as a 0 in the computation of the course grade.
2) All written work is due on the dates scheduled in the syllabus, or on the date announced by the instructor in class (usually the next class meeting). ‘Late’ work will not be accepted from students who were privy to its oral evaluation and discussion (i.e., you were present while we ‘went over it’ but you neglected to do it beforehand). In the event of one’s absence, ‘late’ submissions bear the following penalties: one day late/one letter grade; two days late/two letter grades; three or more days late/U. Please note: these ‘days’ are calendar days, not class meeting days. For accounting purposes, letter grades bear the following values: A=95; A-=92; B+=88; B=85; B-=82; C+=78; C=75; C-=72; U=35. An untyped written assignment, seminar paper, or final project automatically receives the grade U, as do those typed submissions which violate the required parameters or which the instructor deems physically unacceptable and/or grammatically incomprehensible.
3) Since your diligent physical participation is critical for the success of this course, attendance at class meetings will be monitored by the instructor. One absence is regrettable; two absences are the limit of tolerability. Three (3) or more absences will result in an automatic U for the course. Please note that the instructor does not distinguish ‘excused’ from ‘unexcused’ absences. Unsanctioned late arrivals and early departures will be tallied as absences.
c. Assistance and solicitation of criticism is your right as a member of the class. It is not a privilege to be granted or withheld. Do not hesitate to request it nor wait too late in the course for it to be of help.
Rough Course Outline
Sparks, AOT, ix-xviii.
Robert A. Kraft, “Setting the Stage and Framing Some Central Questions,” Journal for the Study of Judaism 32 (2001): 371-95. [available online from Atkins Library]
Ascension of Isaiah
Sparks, AOT, 775-812.
Apocalypse of Elijah
Sparks, AOT, 753-73.
Testament of Abraham
Sparks, AOT, 393-421.
Sparks, AOT, 169-319.
Sparks, AOT, 321-62.
Sparks, AOT, 1-139.
No class (Yom Kippur)
Life of Adam and Eve
Sparks, AOT, 141-67.
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Sparks, AOT, 505-600.
A western language translation of 4 Ezra 3-14.
Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch)/Paraleipomena of Jeremiah
Sparks, AOT, 835-95; 813-33.
No class (SBL meeting, Philadelphia).
No class (Thanksgiving).
Research projects and concluding business
Template for Seminar Papers
Each seminar paper will have the same structure. Following an initial summary of the manuscript and versional evidence for the pertinent pseudepigraphon, identify and critically discuss the textual elements and/or the social situations seemingly presupposed by the work which offer hints for classifying the work as ‘Jewish,’ ‘Christian,’ or otherwise. You must also address the issue as to why the work might be ascribed to this particular ‘personality.’ The papers should be no longer than five (5) typed pages and fall due the evening of each class (beginning September 1) that is dedicated to a particular work.
Supplemental Bibliography for RELS 6603
A. Some Critical Studies
Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author,’ in his Image, Music, Text (trans. Stephen Heath; New York: Hill and Wang, 1977), 142-48.
Regina Bendix, In Search of Authenticity: The Formation of Folklore Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).
Roger Chartier, “Figures of the Author,” in his The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries (trans. Lydia G. Cochrane; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), 25-59.
Giles Constable, “Forgery and Plagiarism in the Middle Ages,” Archiv für Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde 29 (1983): 1-41.
Umberto Eco, “The Force of Falsity,” in his Serendipities: Language and Lunacy (trans. William Weaver; New York: Columbia University Press, 1998; repr., San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999), 1-21.
Michel Foucault, “What Is an Author?’ in his Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews (ed. Donald F. Bouchard; Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977), 113-38; also in Josué V. Harari, ed., Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post-Structuralist Criticism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979), 141-60; also in Paul Rabinow, ed., The Foucault Reader (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101-20. Originally published in Bulletin de la Société Française de Philosophie 63 (1969).
Anthony Grafton, Forgers and Critics: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).
Robert J. Griffin, “Anonymity and Authorship,” New Literary History 30 (1999): 877-95.
Ian Haywood, Faking It: Art and the Politics of Forgery (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).
Rebecca Moore Howard, “Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty,” College English 57 (1995): 788-806.
Peggy Kamuf, Signature Pieces: On the Institution of Authorship (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988).
James Kennedy et al., “Notes on Anonymity and Pseudonymity,” in Samuel Halkett and John Laing, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous English Literature (9 vols.; Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1926-62), 1:xi-xxiii.
Donald E. Pease, “Author,” in Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, eds., Critical Terms for Literary Study (2d ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 105-17.
K. K. Ruthven, Faking Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Jack Stillinger, Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
B. On Manuscripts, Scribes, and the Transmission of Texts by Jews, Christians, & Muslims in Late Antiquity & the Middle Ages
N.B. Although some of these ‘logistical’ studies focus on later periods and differing genres of literature, they are extremely useful for framing some salient issues that are of direct relevance to the manufacture, preservation, and inter-religious transmission of our parascriptural materials.
Daniel Abrams, “Critical and Post-Critical Textual Scholarship of Jewish Mystical Literature: Notes on the History and Development of Modern Editing Techniques,” Kabbalah 1 (1996): 17-71.
Leila Avrin, “The Hebrew Book,” in her Scribes, Script and Books: The Book Arts from Antiquity to the Renaissance (Chicago/London: American Library Association/The British Library, 1991), 101-37.
Malachi Beit-Arié, Hebrew Manuscripts of East and West: Towards a Comparative Codicology (The Panizzi Lectures 1992; London: The British Library, 1993).
______, “Publication and Reproduction of Literary Texts in Medieval Jewish Civilization: Jewish Scribality and its Impact on the Texts Transmitted,” in Yaakov Elman and Israel Gershoni, eds., Transmitting Jewish Traditions: Orality, Textuality, and Cultural Diffusion (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 225-47.
______, “Transmission of Texts by Scribes and Copyists: Unconscious and Critical Interferences,” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 75 (1993): 33-51.
Lawrence I. Conrad, “Recovering Lost Texts: Some Methodological Issues,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (1993): 258-63.
Philip R. Davies, Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998).
Aaron Demsky and Meir Bar-Ilan, “Writing in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism,” in Martin Jan Mulder, ed., Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (CRINT 2.1; Assen/Philadelphia: Van Gorcum/Fortress Press, 1988), 2-38.
Harry Y. Gamble, Books and Readers in the Early Church: A History of Early Christian Texts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).
Kim Haines-Eitzen, Guardians of Letters: Literacy, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Pp. 53-132 are especially important.
Paul Mandel, “Between Byzantium and Islam: The Transmission of a Jewish Book in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Periods,” in Elman and Gershoni, Transmitting Jewish Traditions, 74-106.
Chaim Milikowsky, “The Status Quaestionis of Research in Rabbinic Literature,” Journal of Jewish Studies 39 (1988): 201-11.
C. H. Roberts, Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian Egypt (London: Oxford University Press, 1979).
C. H. Roberts and T. C. Skeat, The Birth of the Codex (London: Oxford University Press, 1987).
Franz Rosenthal, “Of Making Many Books There Is No End: The Classical Muslim View,” in George N. Atiyeh, ed., The Book in the Islamic World: The Written Word and Communication in the Middle East (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), 33-55.
Peter Schäfer, “Research into Rabbinic Literature: An Attempt to Define the Status Quaestionis,” Journal of Jewish Studies 37 (1986): 139-52.
______, “Once Again the Status Quaestionis of Research in Rabbinic Literature: An Answer to Chaim Milikowsky,” Journal of Jewish Studies 40 (1989): 89-94.
Colette Sirat, Hebrew Manuscripts of the Middle Ages (ed. and trans. Nicholas de Lange; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Emanuel Tov, “Hebrew Biblical Manuscripts from the Judaean Desert: Their Contribution to Textual Criticism,” Journal of Jewish Studies 39 (1988): 5-37.
C. Some Important Collections of Biblical Pseudepigrapha
R. H. Charles, ed., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English (2 vols.; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).
James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 vols.; Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983-85).
André Dupont-Sommer and Marc Philonenko, eds., La Bible: Écrits intertestamentaires (Paris: Gallimard, 1987).
Abraham Kahana, ed., Ha-sefarim ha-hitzonim (2 vols.; Tel Aviv, 1936-37; repr., Tel Aviv: Masada, 1956).
E. Kautzsch, ed., Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (2 vols.; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1900).
Paul Riessler, Altjüdisches Schrifttum ausserhalb der Bibel (Augsburg: B. Filser, 1928).
H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984).
D. Generic Surveys of Biblical Pseudepigrapha
James H. Charlesworth, The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, With a Supplement (Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1981).
Albert-Marie Denis and Jean-Claude Haelewyck, Introduction à la literature religieuse judéo-hellénistique: Pseudépigraphes de l’Ancien Testament (2 vols.; Turnhout: Brepols, 2000). A much expanded and revised edition of Albert-Marie Denis, Introduction aux pseudépigraphes grecs d’Ancien Testament (Leiden: Brill, 1970).
M. R. James, The Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament, Their Titles and Fragments (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920). Note especially the important collection of materials amassed by Bob Kraft and associates here.
Robert A. Kraft and George W. E. Nickelsburg, eds., Early Judaism and its Modern Interpreters (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986). See especially the essays by Attridge, Collins, Doran, Harrington, Horgan, and Kolenkow.
George W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981). A revised edition of this survey is currently in press.
Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.-A.D. 135): A New English Version (rev. and ed. Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, and Martin Goodman; 3 vols. in 4; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973-87), 3.1:177-704; 3.2:705-808.
Michael E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period (CRINT 2.2; Assen and Philadelphia: Van Gorcum and Fortress Press, 1984). Practically every article in this seminal collection is of extraordinary importance.
Charles Cutler Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature: A Brief Introduction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945).
E. Issues in Biblical Pseudepigraphy
William Adler, “The Pseudepigrapha in Early Christianity,” in Lee Martin McDonald and James A. Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2002), 211-28.
Gary A. Anderson and Michael E. Stone, eds., A Synopsis of the Books of Adam and Eve (2d ed.; SBLEJL 17; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999).
Gary [A.] Anderson, Michael [E.] Stone, and Johannes Tromp, eds., Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays (SVTP 15; Leiden: Brill, 2000).
James E. Bowley and John C. Reeves, “Rethinking the Concept of ‘Bible’: Some Theses and Proposals,” Henoch 25 (2003): 3-18.
Daniel Boyarin, Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).
______, Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), esp. 1-21.
______, “Semantic Differences; or, ‘Judaism’/‘Christianity’,” in Adam H. Becker and Annette Yoshiko Reed, eds., The Ways that Never Parted: Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (TSAJ 95; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003), 65-85.
Norbert Brox, ed., Pseudepigraphie in der heidnischen und jüdisch-christlichen Antike (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1977).
David Bundy, “Pseudepigrapha in Syriac Literature,” in Kent H. Richards, ed., Society of Biblical Literature 1991 Seminar Papers (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991), 745-65.
James H. Charlesworth, “A History of Pseudepigrapha Research: The Re-emerging Importance of the Pseudepigrapha,” in Wolfgang Haase, ed., Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, II.19.1: Religion (Judentum: Allgemeines; palästinisches Judentum) (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1979), 54-88.
Naomi G. Cohen, “From Nabi to Mal’ak to ‘Ancient Figure’,” Journal of Jewish Studies 36 (1985): 12-24.
Shaye J. D. Cohen, The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Devorah Dimant, “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch,” Vetus Testamentum 33 (1983): 14-29.
David Frankfurter, “Beyond ‘Jewish Christianity’: Continuing Religious Sub-Cultures of the Second and Third Centuries and Their Documents,” in Becker and Reed, The Ways that Never Parted, 131-43.
______, “Jews or Not? Reconstructing the ‘Other’ in Rev 2:9 and 3:9,” Harvard Theological Review 94 (2001): 403-25.
J.-C. Haelewyck, Clavis apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti (Turnhout: Brepols, 1998). Supplies a comprehensive bibliography of important editions and studies.
Moshe D. Herr, “Les raisons de la conservation des restes de la literature juive de l’époque du Second Temple,” Apocrypha 1 (1990): 219-30.
Martha Himmelfarb, Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983; repr., Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), esp. 127-68.
Marinus de Jonge, “Christian Influence in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,” Novum Testamentum 4 (1960): 182-235.
______, Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament as Part of Christian Literature: The Case of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and the Greek Life of Adam and Eve (SVTP 18; Leiden: Brill, 2003).
______, “The So-Called Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament and Early Christianity,” in Peder Borgen and Søren Giversen, eds., The New Testament and Hellenistic Judaism (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1995), 59-71.
______, “The Transmission of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs by Christians,” Vigiliae Christianae 47 (1993): 1-28.
______, “The Two Great Commandments in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,” Novum Testamentum 44 (2002): 371-92.
Michael A. Knibb, “Christian Adoption and Transmission of Jewish Pseudepigrapha: The Case of 1 Enoch,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 32 (2001): 396-415.
Ross Kraemer, When Aseneth Met Joseph: A Late Antique Tale of the Biblical Patriarch and his Wife Reconsidered (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Robert A. Kraft, “The Codex and Canon Consciousness,” in McDonald-Sanders, The Canon Debate, 229-33.
______, “The Pseudepigrapha in Christianity,” in John C. Reeves, ed., Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (SBLEJL 6; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994), 55-86.
______, “Scripture and Canon in Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha,” in Magne Sæbø, ed., Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation (2 vols.; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996-2000), 1:199-216.
______, “Setting the Stage and Framing Some Central Questions,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 32 (2001): 371-95.
______, “The Weighing of the Parts: Pivots and Pitfalls in the Study of Early Judaisms and their Early Christian Offspring,” in Becker and Reed, The Ways that Never Parted, 87-94.
James L. Kugel, In Potiphar’s House: The Interpretive Life of Biblical Texts (San Francisco: Harper, 1990).
Hayim Lapin, “Introduction: Locating Ethnicity and Religious Community in Later Roman Palestine,” in idem, ed., Religious and Ethnic Communities in Later Roman Palestine (Bethesda, Md.: University Press of Maryland, 1998), 1-28.
Judith M. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
______, “‘Impregnable Ramparts and Walls of Iron’: Boundary and Identity in Early ‘Judaism’ and ‘Christianity’,” New Testament Studies 48 (2002): 297-313.
David G. Meade, Pseudonymity and Canon: An Investigation into the Relationship of Authorship and Authority in Jewish and Earliest Christian Tradition (WUNT 39; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1986), 1-16.
Bruce M. Metzger, “Literary Forgeries and Canonical Pseudepigrapha,” Journal of Biblical Literature 91 (1972): 3-24.
George W. E. Nickelsburg, “Scripture in 1 Enoch and 1 Enoch as Scripture,” in Tord Fornberg and David Hellholm, eds., Texts and Contexts: Biblical Texts in Their Textual and Situational Contexts: Essays in Honor of Lars Hartman (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1995), 333-54.
Rivka Nir, “The Aromatic Fragrances of Paradise in the Greek Life of Adam and Eve and the Christian Origin of the Composition,” Novum Testamentum 46 (2004): 20-45. [see Smit below]
______, The Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (SBLEJL 20; Leiden/Atlanta: Brill/Society of Biblical Literature, 2003).
John C. Reeves, “Complicating the Notion of an Enochic Judaism,” in Gabriele Boccaccini, ed., Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2005), 373-83.
______, “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 30 (1999): 148-77.
______, Heralds of That Good Realm: Syro-Mesopotamian Gnosis and Jewish Traditions (NHMS 41; Leiden: Brill, 1996), esp. 31-64.
______, “Scriptural Authority in Early Judaism,” in James E. Bowley, ed., Living Traditions of the Bible: Scripture in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Practice (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999), 63-84.
______, “Some Explorations of the Intertwining of Bible and Qur’ān,” in John C. Reeves, ed., Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality (SBLSymS 24; Leiden/Atlanta: Brill/Society of Biblical Literature, 2003), 43-60.
______, ed., Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (SBLEJL 6; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994). A collection of solicited essays addressing pseudepigraphic ‘survivals’ in Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and other Near Eastern religious and literary texts.
Francesca Rochberg-Halton, “Canonicity in Cuneiform Texts,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 36 (1984): 127-44.
David Satran, Biblical Prophets in Byzantine Palestine: Reassessing the Lives of the Prophets (SVTP 11; Leiden: Brill, 1995).
Peter-Ben Smit, “Incense Revisited: Reviewing the Evidence for Incense as a Clue to the Christian Provenance of the Greek Life of Adam and Eve,” Novum Testamentum 46 (2004): 369-75.
Morton Smith, “Pseudepigraphy in the Israelite Literary Tradition,” in Kurt von Fritz, ed., Pseudepigrapha I (Vandœuvres-Genève: Fondation Hardt pour l’Étude l’antiquité classique, 1972), 191-215.
Wolfgang Speyer, Bücherfunde in der Glaubenswerbung der Antike (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970).
______, Die literarische Fälschung im heidnischen und christlichen Altertum (München: C. H. Beck, 1971).
______, “Religiöse Pseudepigraphie und literarische Fälschung im Altertum,” Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum 8/9 (1965-66): 88-125.
Michael E. Stone, “Aramaic Levi in Its Contexts,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 9 (2002): 307-26.
______, “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Pseudepigrapha,” Dead Sea Discoveries 3 (1996): 270-95.
______, A History of the Literature of Adam and Eve (SBLEJL 3; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).
______, “Jewish Tradition, the Pseudepigrapha and the Christian West,” in D. R. G. Beattie and M. J. McNamara, eds., The Aramaic Bible: Targums in their Historical Context (JSOTSup 166; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994), 431-49.
______, Selected Studies in Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha with Special Reference to the Armenian Tradition (SVTP 9; Leiden: Brill, 1991). Reprints a plethora of groundbreaking articles.
Michael E. Stone and Theodore A. Bergren, eds., Biblical Figures Outside the Bible (Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 1998).
Johannes Tromp, “The Story of Our Lives: The qz-Text of the Life of Adam and Eve, the Apostle Paul, and the Jewish-Christian Oral Tradition Concerning Adam and Eve,” New Testament Studies 50 (2004): 205-23.
James C. VanderKam, From Revelation to Canon: Studies in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Literature (Leiden: Brill, 2000). Reprints a number of important essays.
Jed Wyrick, The Ascension of Authorship: Attribution and Canon Formation in Jewish, Hellenistic, and Christian Traditions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).